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The process of restoring the black Kladruber stock

After the First World War, attempts began to appear requesting the elimination of any resemblance of the Habsburg dynasty and its court regardless of historical values. Even the Kladruber was not exempt from the adverse effects of such efforts.

In the first instance, the reduction of the Kladruber stock carried out in 1925-1931 affected the black stock to such an extent that it was practically dissolved save a few animals. On the initiative of MUDr. et PhDr. Bílek, the then professor of animal management at the University of Agriculture in Prague, restoration efforts were started in the autumn of 1945 to save the breed; this happened following the relocation of the State Experimental Stud of MoA from Průhonice near Prague to the stud in Slatiňany.

Before it happened, Prof. Bílek attempted to gather the last remnants of the breed as early as the late 1930s with the intention to continue pure-bred reproduction in Průhonice near Prague. Unfortunately, he found that since the existing population was too small, considerably overaged and exhausted, counting on pure-bred reproduction was something no longer possible. As a result, Professor Bílek decided to take a very bold breeding action in 1941: to restore the black Kladruber stock

3 stallions - half-siblings and sons of Sacramoso XXIX, the last black Kladruber pépinière - had been preserved by 1941 and were available to start the regeneration process:

Sacramoso  XXX, born on 30/03/1927 in Kladruby n.L., dam: 266 Neapolitano Gratia, sire: Neapolitano Gratia (dam: 80 Napoleone, sire: Napoleone Amelia), with 75% Kladruber blood, 12.5% Lipizzaner blood and 12.5% Arab. blood. Measurements: WHT 166 cm, WHS 158 cm, GC 188 cm, SC 21.8 cm. In Kladruby n. L., this stallion was chiefly used as a galakarossier horse; in 1940 it was included in breeding. It sired 9 foals (6 colts, 3 fillies) in Kladruby of which 2 stud stallions were included in breeding: Sacramoso XXXII and Sacramoso XXXIII. In 1945, this stallion was sold to the stud farm in Slatiňany where it was active until 1949 when it had to be put down due to colic problems.

In Slatiňany, 11 daughters of the stud were included in breeding.

Sacramoso XXXI  - SOLO, born on 25/03/1927 in Kladruby n.L., dam: 271 Sacramoso XXVII, sire: Sacramoso Aja XXVII (dam: 80 Napoleone, sire: Napoleone Amelia), with 100% Kladruber blood. Measurements: WHT 171 cm, WHS 161 cm, GC 200 cm, SC 22 cm. This stallion became involved to the greatest extent in the regeneration process; he sired 80 foals, of which 2 stallions (Solo Maja I, Solo Narcis II) and 24 broodmares were included in breeding. It was actually a founder of Solo - a new sub-bloodline of black Kladrubers. It was active in Slatiňany until 1951, when it was put down due to old age and decrepitude.

530 Sacramoso  XXIX-3 Avara, born on 12/04/1930 in Kladruby n.L., dam: 57 Sacramoso XXVII, sire: Sacramoso Aja XXVII (dam: 80 Napoleone, sire: Napoleone Amelia), with 100% Kladruber blood. Measurements: WHT 174 cm, WHS 166 cm, GC 197 cm, SC 21.4 cm. The animal was active for a short time in breeding; it was included in 1942 and died from embolism in 1943. It sired 5 foals, of which its son Avara I and 2 broodmares were included in breeding. All these stallions were closely inbred through which considerable genotype homozygousness was achieved, as was expression of the breed phenotype which they passed down to their offspring

(a) 2 mares - pure-bred black Kladrubers

13 SABINA, born on 13/10/1926 in Kladruby n.L., sire: Sacramoso XXIX dam: 83 Napoleone VI, sire: Napoleone Sola VI dam: Leucaudia, sire: Sacramoso Risanotta. Included in breeding in 1941, it produced 1 foal only - a daughter, 37 Sabiola, sire: Oldenburg stallion of Czechoslovak stock Gebwin 249; the daughter was later included in breeding. Measurements: 169/161, 204, 21.0. Removed from the stock in 1951 for old age and infertility

28 AJA, born on 03/02/1928 in Kladruby n.L., sire: Sacramoso Aja XXVII, dam: 83 Napoleone VI, sire: Napoleone Sola VI dam: Leucaudia, sire: Sacramoso Risanotta Included in breeding in Slatiňany in 1942, it produced 3 foals only, which were not used in breeding any longer. Measurements: 168/158, 205, 21.0. Removed from the stock in 1946 for old age.

(b) 23 mares - pure-bred grey Kladrubers and mares with some share of Kladruber blood, of which

43 CAMPANELLA, born on 06/05/1942 in Kladruby n.L., sire: Sacramoso XXX dam: 438 Shagya I, sire: Shagya I dam: 265 Generale XXX, sire: Generale Alata XXX Czech bay, measurements: 177/165, 204, 21.5, with 62.5% Kladruber blood, 25% Arab. and 12.5% Lipizz. blood. Included in breeding in 1946, it produced 5 foals (3 colts, 2 fillies) from which stud horse Maestoso V and daughter 142 Cantinella were included in breeding. Died in 1954.

35 FORMOSA, born on 13/05/1934 in Kladruby n.L., sire: Furioso VII dam: 265 Generale XXX, sire: Generale Alata XXX, dam: 107 Generalissimus XIX, sire: Generalissimus Formosa XIX, mixed grey, measurements: 176/167, 213, 21.0, with 43.75% Kladruber blood and 56.25% Engl. half-bred. Included in breeding in Kladruby n.L. as “475 Furioso VII”, active in Slatiňany SF from 1945 where it produced 6 foals (2 colts and 4 fillies). These fillies were later all included in breeding. Removed in 1954 for old age.

32 RAGUZA, born on 22/03/1938 in Kladruby n.L., sire: Generale XXXIII dam: 416 Shagya I, sire: Shagya I dam: 85 Napoleone, sire: Napoleone Generale III mixed grey, measurements: 166/157,198, 20.5, with 75% Kladruber blood and 25% Arab. Blood. Included in breeding in Kladruby as “531 Generale XXXIII”, in 1945 it was transferred to Slatiňany SF where it continued to be involved in breeding and delivered 7 foals (5 colts and 2 fillies). Subsequently, both of the fillies were included in breeding In 1952, the mare died during delivery

121 SEPTIMIA, born on 28/04/1950 in Zahrádky u České Lípy, sire: 411 Generale XXXIII-1 dam: Spaniola, sire: Pluto Presciana dam: Sardina, sire: Maestoso Gratia, grey dun-grey with 173/163, 197, 21.5, with 31.25% Kladruber blood, 50% Lipizzaner and 18.75% Arab. blood. Included in breeding in 1954, it produced 11 foals (5 colts and 6 fillies), of which 3 mares were included in breeding. In 1969, the mare was removed from breeding for old age and overall depletion.

1 MAJA, born on 29/01/1922 in Nové Dvory u Opavy, sire: 376 Maestoso III-2 dam: 301 Napoleone, sire: Napoleone Sola VI dam: 71 Sacr.XXVI, sire: Sacramoso Risanotta XXVI, a black horse, measurements: 167/158, 200, 20.5, with 50% Kladruber blood and 50% Lipizz. blood. Included in breeding in 1941, it produced 5 foals (2 colts, 3 fillies), of which the sire Solo Maja I and 2 daughters were included in breeding. In 1947, it was removed for advanced age.

15 NARCIS, born on 17/03/1939 in Chrást near Chrudim, sire: 530 Sacr.XXIX-3 Avara dam: land mare Líza, sire: Sacramoso Aja XXVII dam: land mare No. 23, sire: 145 Lord Willibald, black horse with markings, measurements: 173/163, 206, 22.7, with 75% Kladruber blood and 25% blood of Cz. warm-blooded. Included in breeding in 1946, it gave birth to 10 foals (7 colts and 3 fillies), of which 2 stallions - Solo Narcis II and Solo Narcis IV - and two daughters were included in breeding. In 1961, the mare was removed from breeding for old age.

3 MAGURA, born on 09/12/1937 in Topolčianky, sire: Maestoso I dam: 274 Sacramoso XXIX-1, sire: Sacramoso XXIX dam: 31 Virtuoso, sire: Pluto Slatina III, black horse with 168/157,193, 20.5, with 25% Kladruber blood and 75% Lipizz. blood. Included in breeding in 1942, it gave birth to 8 foals (4 colts, 4 fillies). All the fillies were subsequently included in breeding. In 1956, the mare was removed from breeding.

8 MAESTOSA, born on 28/04/1936 in Topolčianky, sire: Maestoso I dam: 266 Neapolitano Gratia-4, sire: Neapolitano Gratia dam: 80 Napoleone, sire: Napoleone Amelia III, black horse, measurements: 170/160,192,20.5, with 25% Kladruber blood and 75% Lipizz. blood. Included in breeding in 1941, it produced 9 foals (7 colts, 2 fillies), of which 2 stallions - Generalissimus XXVIII and Solo Maestosa III - and daughter 46 Elisa were included in breeding. In 1954, the mare was removed from breeding for old age.

(c) 18 pure-bred Lipizzaner mares, of which

11 were Lipizzaner mares from Topolčianky SF (5 greys, 3 blacks, 3 dark bays); of these, 3 produced mares to continue the current families

7 Maga, 9 Neapolitana and 60 Plutona

7 were Lipizzaner mares from Piber Stud that were mostly overaged, infertile and did not become involved in breeding.

Of these, the following became founders of current families

7 MAGA, born on 28/01/1939 in Topolčianky, sire: Maestoso I dam: 101 Pluto XVII, sire: 4 Pluto XVII dam: 30 Rigoletta, sire: Conversano Austria, grey-dotted grey, measurements: 168/160, 195, 21.3. Included in breeding in 1942, it gave birth to 10 foals (3 colts, 7 fillies), of which 4 mares were later included in breeding. In 1961, the mare was removed from breeding for old age.

9 NEAPOLITANA, born on 03/02/1934 in Topolčianky, sire: Neapolitano Gratia I dam: 16 Malaga, sire: Pluto Slatina III dam: Malaga, sire: Maestoso Slavina II, dark bay, measurements: 168/160, 195, 21.3. Included in breeding in 1942 when it was purchased together with its daughter Capriolina, born in 1942. It also produced 4 colts. Its daughter, 44 Capriolina, was later included in breeding. In 1951, the mare was removed for reproductive disorders (abortion).

60 PLUTONA, born on 27/04/1943 in Topolčianky, sire: Pluto I dam: 451 Maestoso I, sire: Maestoso I dam: 234 Neapolitano Gratia, sire: Neapol. Gratia, brown-dotted grey, measurements: 168/158, 195, 20.0. Included in breeding in 1947, it produced 1 colt and 3 fillies, of which 2 mares were later included in breeding. For frequent infertility it was removed from breeding in 1951.

d)  (d) 3 warm-blooded mares:

These mares never involved in breeding, one was without offspring, each of the other mares had one daughter included in breeding, the daughters, however, did not continued,

(e) 5 mares without origin / salvage mares with brand marking:

Of these mares, 2 greys were in Lipizzaner type without origin, 1 grey in English-Arab type, l salvage dun originating from Mexico and 1 Silesian land mare without origin. Each of these three mares had a daughter included in breeding which, however, did not continue in breeding. One of the mares was without offspring. Mare 67 Xandra became a founder of a current family

67  XANDRA, born in 1938, Silesian land mare with brand marking, without origin (in warm-blooded type), black-dotted grey, measurements: 168/156, 204, 20.0. Included in breeding in 1947, it gave birth to 9 foals (5 colts, 4 fillies), of which 2 mares were included in breeding

(f) 3 mares of Orlov trotter (imported):

In 1955, 3 two-year fillies were imported to extend the base of the blood - black Orlov trotters. After performance tests they were included in breeding. Two of these mares suffered reproductive problems and remained without offspring. Mare 154 Bárta became a founder of another family which has been preserved to this day.

154 BÁRTA, born on 17/02/1953 in Chrenov Stud Farm (USSR), sire: Bars dam: Utrata, sire: 5878 Suchovoj dam: Ulybka, sire: 2300 Balans, black, measurements: 171/162, 192, 20.6 Included in breeding in 1958, it produced 3 foals (2 colts, 1 filly), of which its son Solo Bárta V and daughter 206 Barca were later included in breeding. The mare was taken out of breeding in 1958.

As can be seen from this review, there were 54 mares used in the parental generation of dams, many of which had been unfit for breeding from different causes and had to be removed from the stock without giving any offspring.

Throughout the regeneration process, i.e. until the end of October 1973, a total of 34 sires were utilised:

2 purebred black OK, 6 stallions - black Kladruber with over 50% Kladruber blood

7 stallions - black Kladruber with a share below 50% Kladruber blood (predominantly with an admixture of blood of Lipizzaner, Arab and Orlov trotter) and 7 stallions of grey Kladruber. Of these stallions, the following became involved to the greatest extent:

 No. ofIncluded
Stallion NameBornColourFoals bornStallionMare
Sacramoso XXX1927black17211
Sacramoso XXXII1941grey3016
Sacramoso Roma XXXVI1961black74112
Solo (Sacramoso XXXI)1927black80224
Solo Maja I1946black39112
Solo Narcis II1952black65117
Solo Maestosa III1952black2015
Solo Narcis IV1957black120229
Solo Bárta V1961black21-3
Generalissimus XXV1945grey812

Consequently, making use of pure-bred reproduction to preserve the black OK stock was no longer possible, the reasons including the fact that the last three default stallions were inbred. The regeneration process had to make use of various breeding procedures including refreshment of blood by other breeds. In this regard, Lipizzaner stallions were mostly utilised in the regeneration process with 10 animals used; others involved 1 stallion with a share of Nonius blood and 1 Oldenburg stallion. Of these stallions, the following became involved to the greatest extent:

 No. ofIncluded
Stallion NameBornColourFoals bornStallionMare
Maestoso I1928black11-7
Maestoso IV1940black43116
Nepolitano Gratia III1930black9-3
Nepolitano Gratia IV1934black17-6
Pluto II1931grey8-3
Pluto V1951black18-2
Siglavi Pakra1946black1622

Stallion Nonius XLV, born on 24/03/1965 in Slatiňany, sire: 64 K. Nonius XXVII dam: 195 Majmona, sire: Solo III, black bay, measurements: 174/165, 190, 21.8, with 25% Kladruber blood, 25% Lipizzaner blood and 50% Nonius blood, it was used to expand the blood base. It sired 28 foals - mainly black bays, 8 of its daughters were included in the primary stock of dams. Other stallions were largely not involved in breeding as they did not have enough offspring, whether in terms of limited utilisation or for early mortality of the stud.

On completion of the regeneration process, Slatiňany Stud registered 6 sires: Solo Narcis IV (62.5% OK, 25% Lip.), Solo Bárta V (43.75% OK, 50% Orl.trot.) Sacramoso Roma XXXVI (71.67 OK, 25% Lip.), Nonius XLV (25% OK, 25% Lip., 50% Non.), and 2 full siblings, sires Siglavi Pakra I and Siglavi Pakra II (31.25% OK, 59.37% Lip.). In 1973, 33 dams from 13 families and 52 foals / young adult horses in the stage of rearing and training were included in the primary stock.

  • In the parental generation of dams, the situation was very dire at that time. A total of 54 dams of different origins were used
    • 17 were grey Kladrubers from the Kladruby stud, mostly rather old; they became involved to a limited extent in the regeneration process for their poor capacity to become pregnant. Only 6 of them produced animals that continued the stock (of which 3 are present families - 43 Campanella, 35 Formosa, and 32 Raguza).
    • 1 grey Kladruber born in Zahrádky u České Lípy - 121 Septimia
    • 3 black Kladrubers: 14 Nona, born in Kroměříž (produced foal Avar I only), 1 Maja, born in Nové Dvory u Opavy, and 15 Narcis, born in Chrast near Chrudim
    • 2 black Lipizz. with 25% black Kladruber blood born in Topolčianky: 3 Magura and 8 Maestosa. This group of mares included the most of the animals to continue the current families: 8 out of 13 families. The founder females of the families are: